Computing Evolution of Cloud Computing

Evolution of Cloud

Computing Evolution of Cloud Computing

  • Cloud Computing Leverages dynamic resources to deliver a large number of services to end-users.
  • It is High Throughput Computing(HTC) paradigm
  • It enables users to share access to resources from anywhere at any time


Hardware Evolution

  • In 1930, binary arithmetic was developed
    • by computer processing technology, terminology, and programming languages.
  • In 1939, Electronic computer was developed
    • Computations were performed using vacuum-tube technology.
  • In 1941, Konrad Zuse's Z3 was developed
    • Support both floating-point and binary arithmetic.

There are four generations

  • First Generation Computers
  • Second Generation Computers
  • Third Generation Computers
  • Fourth Generation Computers

First Generation Computers

Time Period: 1942 to 1955

Technology: Vacuum Tubes

Size: Very Large System 

Processing: Very Slow


1. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)

2. EDVAC(Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)

Advantages of First Generation Computers:

  • It made use of vacuum tubes which was the advanced technology at that time
  • Computations were performed in milliseconds.

Disadvantages of First Generation Computers:

  • very big in size, weight was about 30 tones.
  • very costly.
  • Requires more power consumption
  • Large amount of heat was generated.

Second Generation Computers

Time Period: 1956 to 1965. 

Technology: Transistors 

Size: Smaller

Processing: Faster  


Honeywell 400

IBM 7094

Advantages of Second Generation Computers

  • Less heat than the first generation.
  • Assembly language and punch cards were used for input.
  • Low cost than first-generation computers.
  • Computations were performed in microseconds.
  • Better Portability as compared to first-generation

Disadvantages of Second Generation Computers:

  • A cooling system was required.
  • Constant maintenance was required.
  • Only used for specific purposes

Third Generation Computers

Time Period: 1966 to 1975

Technology: ICs (Integrated Circuits)

Size: Small as compared to 2nd generation computers 

Processing: Faster than 2nd generation computers 


PDP-8 (Programmed Data Processor)


Advantages of Third Generation Computers:

  • These computers were cheaper compared to generation computers.
  • They were fast and reliable.
  • IC not only reduces the size of the computer but it also improves the performance of the computer
  • Computations were performed in nanoseconds

Disadvantages of Third Generation Computers:

  • IC chips are difficult to maintain.
  • The highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacturing of IC chips.
  • Air Conditioning is required

Fourth Generation Computers 

Time Period: 1975 to Till Date 

Technology: Microprocessor

Size: Small as compared to third-generation computer 

Processing: Faster than third-generation computer


IBM 4341

DEC 10 

Advantages of Fourth Generation Computers :

  • Fastest in computation and size get reduced as compared to the previous generation of computers. 
  • The heat generated is small.
  • Less maintenance is required.

Disadvantages of Fourth Generation Computers :

  • The Microprocessor design and fabrication are very complex.
  • Air Conditioning is required in many cases

Internet Hardware Evolution

  • Internet Protocol is the standard communications protocol used by every computer on the Internet.
  • The conceptual foundation for creation of the Internet was significantly developed by three individuals.
  • Vannevar Bush — MEMIX (1930)
  • Norbert Wiener
  • Marshall McLuhan
  • Licklider was founder for the creation of the AR PANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network)
  • Clark deployed a minicomputer called an Interface Message Processor (IMP) at each site.
  • Network Control Program (NCP)- first networking protocol that was used on the ARPANET

Internet Hardware Evolution

  • Establishing a Common Protocol for the Internet
  • Evolution of Ipv6
  • Finding a Common Method to Communicate Using the Internet Protocol
  • Building a Common Interface to the Internet
  • The Appearance of Cloud Formations From One Computer to a Grid of Many

Establishing a Common Protocol for the Internet

  • NCP essentially provided a transport layer consisting of the ARPANET Host-to-Host Protocol (AIIIIP) and the Initial Connection Protocol (ICP)
  • Application protocols
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP), used for file transfers,
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), used for sending email Four versions of TCP/IP
    • TCP vl
    • TCP v2
    • TCP v3 and IP v3,
    • TCP v4 and IP v4

Evolution of Ipv6

  • IPv4 was never designed to scale to global levels.
  • To increase available address space, it had to process large data packets (i.e., more bits of data).
  • To overcome these problems, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) developed IPv6, which was released in January 1995.
  • Ipv6 is sometimes called the Next Generation Internet Protocol (IPNG) or TCP/IP v6.

Evolution of Cloud Services


Google Application Engine

Microsoft Azure


S3 launches EC2


Launch of Amazon Web Services


The first milestone of cloud computing arrival of



Super Computers