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# What Is Network Topology? Write The Name And Characteristics Of Different Topology.

Network topology refers to the arrangement of nodes, devices, and connections in a computer network. It determines how data flows between nodes and how the network is organized. There are several types of network topology, each with its own characteristics and advantages.

1. Bus topology: In a bus topology, all nodes are connected to a single cable, which acts as a backbone for the network. Data is transmitted along the cable, and each node receives and filters the data to determine whether it is intended for that node. The main advantage of bus topology is its simplicity, as it is easy to set up and requires minimal cabling. However, it can be difficult to isolate faults and can suffer from data collisions.

2. Star topology: In a star topology, each node is connected to a central hub or switch, which acts as a traffic controller for the network. Data is transmitted between nodes via the hub, which manages the flow of data and ensures that each node receives the data it is intended for. The main advantage of star topology is its reliability, as faults can be easily isolated and the network can continue to function even if one node fails. However, it can be more expensive to set up than bus topology.

3. Ring topology: In a ring topology, nodes are connected in a closed loop, with each node connected to two neighboring nodes. Data is transmitted in one direction around the loop, and each node receives and filters the data to determine whether it is intended for that node. The main advantage of ring topology is its efficiency, as data is transmitted quickly and efficiently around the loop. However, it can be difficult to isolate faults and adding or removing nodes can be complex.

4. Mesh topology: In a mesh topology, each node is connected to multiple other nodes, forming a network of interconnected nodes. Data is transmitted between nodes via the shortest path, and if one path is unavailable, data can be rerouted through another path. The main advantage of mesh topology is its reliability and flexibility, as data can be transmitted through multiple paths, ensuring that the network can continue to function even if some nodes fail. However, it can be more expensive to set up and requires more cabling than other topologies.

5. Tree topology: In a tree topology, nodes are arranged in a hierarchical structure, with a root node at the top and branches extending downward. Each node in the network is connected to a parent node and may have one or more child nodes. Data is transmitted from the root node down to the leaves of the tree, and each node receives and filters the data to determine whether it is intended for that node. The main advantage of tree topology is its scalability, as nodes can be easily added or removed without disrupting the network. However, it can be complex to set up and may suffer from bottlenecks if the network becomes too large.

In summary, there are several types of network topology, each with its own characteristics and advantages. The choice of topology depends on the specific requirements of the network, such as the number of nodes, the amount of data transmitted, and the reliability and scalability needed.