Explain Read-only, Write-only And Read-before-write Protocols In Serializability?

In serializability, there are different protocols that can be used to ensure that transactions access data in a correct and consistent manner. Three common protocols are the read-only protocol, the write-only protocol, and the read-before-write protocol.

  1. Read-only protocol:In the read-only protocol, transactions are only allowed to read data from the database and are not allowed to write or modify any data. This means that a transaction can be run concurrently with other transactions without causing conflicts or interfering with their operations. The read-only protocol is typically used for queries or reports that only require access to read-only data, and not for transactions that involve updates or modifications to the data.

  2. Write-only protocol:In the write-only protocol, transactions are only allowed to write data to the database and are not allowed to read any data. This protocol is useful in situations where updates need to be made to the database without the overhead of reading the data first. The write-only protocol can also improve concurrency and performance by allowing multiple transactions to write to the database at the same time without any conflicts.

  3. Read-before-write protocol:In the read-before-write protocol, transactions are required to read data from the database before writing or modifying it. This protocol ensures that transactions access the correct data and that conflicts are avoided. If a transaction attempts to write to a data item that has been modified by another transaction, a conflict occurs and one of the transactions must be rolled back to maintain the consistency of the data. The read-before-write protocol is commonly used in situations where multiple transactions are likely to access the same data items and where it is important to maintain data consistency.

Overall, the choice of which protocol to use depends on the specific requirements of the application and the data access patterns of the transactions. Each protocol has its own advantages and limitations, and the protocol that is most appropriate will depend on the specific needs of the application.