1. Objects 

2. Classes 

3. Data abstraction and encapsulation 

4. Inheritance 

5. Polymorphism 

6. Dynamic binding 

7. Message passing


Objects are the basic run-time entities in an object-oriented system. They may represent a person, a place, a bank account, a table of data or any item that the program must handle. 

The fundamental idea behind object oriented approach is to combine both data and function into a single unit and these units are called objects. 

The term objects means a combination of data and program that represent some real word entity. For example: consider an example named Amit; Amit is 25 years old and his salary is 2500. The Amit may be represented in a computer program as an object. The data part of the object would be (name: Amit, age: 25, salary: 2500) 

The program part of the object may be collection of programs (retrive of data, change age, change of salary). In general even any user –defined type-such as employee may be used. In the Amit object the name, age and salary are called attributes of the object. 




A group of objects that share common properties for data part and some program part are collectively called as class. 

In C ++ a class is a new data type that contains member variables and member functions that operate on the variables. 


Abstraction refers to the act of representing essential features without including the back ground details or explanations. Classes use the concept of abstraction and are defined as size, width and cost and functions to operate on the attributes. 


The wrapping up of data and function into a single unit (called class) is known as encapsulation. The data is not accessible to the outside world and only those functions which are wrapped in the class can access it. These functions provide the interface between the objects data and the program.


Inheritance is the process by which objects of one class acquire the properties of another class. In the concept of inheritance provides the idea of reusablity. This mean that we can add additional features to an existing class with out modifying it. This is possible by desining a new class will have the combined features of both the classes. 


Polymorphism means the ability to take more than one form. An operation may exhibit different instance. The behaviour depends upon the type of data used in the operation. 

A language feature that allows a function or operator to be given more than one definition. The types of the arguments with which the function or operator is called determines which definition will be used.

Overloading may be operator overloading or function overloading. 

It is able to express the operation of addition by a single operater say ‘+’. When this is possible you use the expression x + y to denote the sum of x and y, for many different types of x and y; integers , float and complex no. You can even define the + operation for two strings to mean the concatenation of the strings. 


Binding refers to the linking of a procedure call to the code to the executed in response to the call. Dynamic binding means the code associated with a given procedure call is not known untill the time of the call at run-time. It is associated with a polymorphic reference depends upon the dynamic type of that reference. 


An object oriented program consists of a set of objects that communicate with each other. 

A message for an object is a request for execution of a procedure and therefore will invoke a function (procedure) in the receiving object that generates the desired result. Message passing involves specifying the name of the object, the name of the function (message) and information to be sent.



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