OpenStack consists of multiple components - Cloud Computing


  • OpenStack is a free and open-source software platform for cloud computing. 
  • OpenStack is a virtualization tool to manage your virtual infrastructure.

OpenStack consists of multiple components.

  • Compute (Nova)
  • Image Service (Glance)
  • Object Storage (Swift)
  • Dashboard (Horizon)
  • Identity Service (Keystone)
  • Networking (Neutron)
  • Block Storage (Cinder)
  • Telemetry (Ceilometer)
  • Orchestration (Heat)
  • Workflow (Mistral)
  • Database (Trove)
  • Elastic map-reduce (Sahara)
  • Bare metal (Ironic)
  • Messaging (Zaqar)
  • Shared file system (Manila)
  • DNS (Designate)
  • Search (Searchlight)
  • Key manager (Barbican)
  • Root Cause Analysis (Vitrage)
  • Rule-based alarm actions (Aodh)

Compute (Nova)

  • OpenStack Compute is also known as OpenStack Nova.
  • Nova is the primary compute engine of OpenStack, used for deploying and managing virtual machine.
  • OpenStack Compute manages pools of computer resources and work with virtualization technologies.
  • Nova can be deployed using hypervisor technologies such as KVM, VMware, LXC, XenServer, etc.

Image Service (Glance)

  • OpenStack image service offers storing and retrieval of virtual machine disk images. 
  • OpenStack Compute makes use of this during VM provisioning.
  • Glance has client-server architecture which allows querying of virtual machine image. 
  • While deploying new virtual machine instances, Glance uses the stored images as templates. 
  • OpenStack Glance supports VirtualBox, VMWare and KVM virtual machine images.

Object Storage (Swift)

  • OpenStack Swift creates redundant (repetition), scalable data storage to store petabytes of accessible data.
  • The data can be included,retrieved and updated.
  • It has a distributed architecture, providing greater redundancy, scalability, and performance, with no central point of control.
  • It helps organizations to store lots of data safely, cheaply and efficiently.

Dashboard (Horizon)

  • OpenStack Horizon is a web-based graphical interface that cloud administrators and users can access tomanage OpenStack compute, storage and networking services.
  • To service providers it provides services such as monitoring,billing, and other management tools.

Identity Service (Keystone)

  • Provides an authentication and authorization service for other OpenStack services. Provides a catalog of OpenStack Services.
  • Keystone provides a central list of users, mapped against all the OpenStack services, which they can access.
  • Keystone supports various forms of authentication like standard username & password credentials.

Networking (Neutron)

  • Neutron provides networking capability like managing networks and IP addresses for OpenStack.
  • OpenStack networking allows users to create their own networks and connects devices and servers to one or more networks.
  • Neutron also offers an extension framework, which supports deploying and managing of other network services such as virtual private networks (VPN), firewalls, load balancing, and intrusion detection system (IDS)

Block Storage (Cinder)

  • Orchestrates multiple composite cloud applications by using templates.
  • creates and manages service that provides persistent data storage to cloud computing applications.
  • Provides persistent block storage to running virtual machine.
  • Cinder also provides a self-service application programming interface (API) to enable users to request and consume storage resources.
  • Cloud user can manage their storage needs by integrating block storage volumes with Dashboard and Nova.
  • It is appropriate for expandable file systems and database storage.

Telemetry (Ceilometer)

  • It provides customer billing, resource tracking, and alarming capabilities across all OpenStack core components.

Orchestration (Heat)

  • Heat is a service to orchestrate (coordinates) multiple composite cloud applications using templates.

Workflow (Mistral)

  • Mistral is a service that manages workflows.
  • User typically writes a workflow using workflow language and uploads the workflow definition.
    • The user can start workflow manually.

Database (Trove)

  • Trove is Database as a Service for OpenStack.
  • Allows users to quickly and easily utilize the features of a database without the burden of handling complex administrative tasks.

Elastic map reduce (Sahara)

  • Sahara is a component to easily and rapidly provision Hadoop clusters.
  • Users will specify several parameters like the Hadoop version number, the cluster topology type, node flavor details (defining disk space, CPU and RAM settings), and others.

Bare metal (Ironic)

  • Ironic provisions bare metal machines instead of virtual machines.

Messaging (Zaqar)

  • Zaqar is a multi-tenant cloud messaging service for Web developers.

Shared file system (Manila)

  • Manila is the OpenStack Shared Filesystems service for providing Shared Filesystems as a service.
  • Allows to create, delete, and give/deny access to a file.

DNS (Designate)

  • Designate is a multi-tenant API for managing DNS.

Search (Searchlight)

  • Searchlight provides advanced and consistent search capabilities across various OpenStack cloud services.

Key manager (Barbican)

  • It provides secure storage, provisioning and management of secret data.
  • This includes keying material such as Symmetric Keys,Asymmetric Keys and Certificates.

Root Cause Analysis (Vitrage)

  • Vitrage is the OpenStack RCA (Root Cause Analysis) service for organizing, analyzing and expanding OpenStack alarms & events, yielding insights regarding the root cause of problems and deducing their existence before they are directly detected.

Rule-based alarm actions (Aodh)

  • This alarming service enables the ability to trigger actions based on defined rules against an event data collected by Ceilometer.